Water purification is the process of removing Substances include parasites (such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium) , bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, minerals (including toxic metals such as Lead, Copper etc.), and man-made chemical pollutants from water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, for example medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications.
There are lots of methods can be used to purify water such as sedimentation, distillation, slow sand filters, chlorination and ultraviolet light etc. The standards for drinking water quality are typically set by governments or by international standards. These standards usually include minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants, depending on the intended purpose of water use.
Because of different sources, water would be pretreated after collected by waterworks. In pretreatment, biological contaminants, chemicals, and other materials are removed from water. Screening is the first step, which removes large debris such as sticks, trash, woods and fish etc. from the water. When purifying surface water such as that from lakes and rivers, screening is generally used. Surface water presents a greater risk of having been polluted with large amounts of contaminants. If ground water is used, screening may not be necessary since the water has passed through layers of the earth in what is essentially a natural screening function.
The second step is coagulation. Alum and other chemicals would be added into water, which cause tiny sticky floc. These floc absorb dirt particles, making them eventually heavy enough to sink to the bottom of the water.
The third step is sedimentation. The water including floc flow into a sedimentation basin. After a period stillness, the heavy floc settle to the bottom, where they remain until filtration.
The fourth step is sand fitration. The water flow through layers of grave, sand or charcoal, which can filter remaining particles from water.
The last step of pretreatment is adding chlorine or other disinfecting chemicals to kill bacteria in the water. After disinfection in the reservoir, the purified water would be distribute through pipes to homes and businesses.
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