To remove different particles from water, there are lots of methods are used. Different methods or technologies have different precision on filtration. The most common technologies are applied to water filtration are carbon filter, ceramic filter, ion exchange filter, ultraviolet filter and RO (reverse osmosis) filter. Some are industrial use, some are household. Some are electric, some do not use electricity. Following are going to discuss what we mentioned before:
Carbon or activated carbon filters: Carbon removes contaminants from the water by bonding with them on a chemical level. Some remove only chlorine, but unable to clear out the other toxins, leaving heavy metals and chemicals behind. Activated carbon is a porous highly adsorptive form of carbon. Also called activated charcoal, active carbon. Due to its high degree of microporosity, just one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 500 m2.
Ceramic and mechanical water filters: Ceramic filters and mechanical filters block sediments by using tiny holes but they let all the contaminants pass. They do not remove chemicals.
Ion exchange water filter: This process replaces ions using a resin as a medium. Resin is an insoluble matrix normally in the form of small (0.25–0.5 mm radius) microbeads, usually white or yellowish. Ion-exchange resins are widely used in different separation, purification, for example, water softening removes calcium and magnesium and adds sodium.
Ozone and Ultraviolet filters: Both ozone and ultraviolet light kill bacteria and microorganisms, but do not remove chemicals.
Reverse osmosis filters: Reverse osmosis blocks any particles that are larger than the molecule of water, therefore blocking: fluoride, arsenic, and nitrates. However, it cannot block chlorine or VOCs. The other setback of this filter is that it uses a lot of water – not the best pick for the environment. This method use electricity and ends up being pricey.
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